INTERVIEW: Why immigrant families in Sweden might distrust social services

Sweden is currently the target of a global disinformation campaign claiming that social services 'kidnap' Muslim children. These claims are false, but the distrust of social services is more complex. Here are some reasons behind that distrust.

INTERVIEW: Why immigrant families in Sweden might distrust social services
Socialstyrelsen, or the National Board of Health and Welfare, is the authority responsible for the Swedish social services. Photo: Lars Pehrson/SvD/TT

A scattered but global campaign against the Swedish social services has united several actors and made headlines in Sweden and beyond in recent weeks. When social media accounts with links to violent Islamist organisations got involved, it prompted Swedish authorities to warn of disinformation, violent threats made against the social services, and a possible risk of terror attacks in their wake.

In a series of tweets, the Swedish Foreign Ministry warned of a disinformation campaign, stating the following: “This information is wrong. It is seriously misleading and aims to create tensions and create mistrust. Swedish social services do not kidnap children. All children in Sweden are protected and cared for equally under Swedish legislation, including the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.”

PART ONE: ‘We don’t kidnap children’: Why Sweden is worried about a new conspiracy theory

Children in immigrant families ‘twice as likely’ to be taken into care

But while claims about a systematic kidnapping campaign are false, the bigger picture is complex.

“There’s been a fear of the social services in certain immigrant groups in Sweden for a number of years, and at its core, this is an integration problem,” Julia Agha, CEO of Alkompis, an Arabic-language news organisation, told The Local.

“We’ve seen that people feel as if they’re being discriminated against. Obviously we don’t know if it’s officially discrimination, or if it’s just being experienced as discrimination, but you can never take that feeling away from someone, that they feel unfairly treated, and we’ve seen a lot of that,” said Agha, whose organisation reports Swedish news and helps its readers navigate Swedish society.

The fear does not come out of nowhere. Figures suggest that social services are twice as likely to take children from immigrant groups into care, according to statistics provided to public broadcaster Radio Sweden by the National Board of Health and Welfare and Statistics Sweden in December (it is not clear what percentage of these families were Muslim).

There’s a multitude of possible reasons behind this, including that Swedish law may in many cases be stricter than what some parents are used to.

Agha said it was important that families who are worried about the social services understand what the law says, and then follow it.

“In plain terms, that means that you should look after your children and meet their needs,” she said.

“There are some things which are less simple – not everything is black and white – and some things that are very clear: for example, corporal punishment isn’t permitted in Sweden, and if you hit your children, that’s wrong. That’s very black and white.”

But more vague cultural differences can also raise issues, for families and authorities alike.

“For example, ‘honour’ in a Swedish context is very controversial, and the debate has almost become infected,” said Agha. “But in some families, it’s very closely linked to religion, so there are some nuances which are more difficult. We often talk about these things at Alkompis.”

‘People don’t know that social services help as well’

Addressing those nuances is important, because it’s hard to identify one single factor that affects such a diverse community.

Agha points out that around 420 million people around the world speak Arabic, with the only thing in common being the language, and in some cases a few cultural aspects. 

“One example of that is that, in terms of values, the family is almost more important than the individual. I’ve seen comments saying ‘it makes no difference what the parents do, you can never take children away from their parents’,” she said.

“There’s this belief that the best situation for the child is always for them to be with their family. Whether you call it ‘kidnapping’ or not, that makes no difference. Just the fact that children are taken away from their parents, there’s friction there.”

So simply dismissing the conspiracy theories as wrong, may not help.

“That’s why this has spread, and why people, in some way, believe this, even if they don’t believe that children are being kidnapped by definition. They know that children are taken into care, and they think that’s wrong,” said Agha.

“It’s not true that they take children so easily. My family got help,” a man named Kamal told newspaper Sydsvenskan at a protest against the social services in Malmö. Photo: Becky Waterton/The Local

It becomes a vicious circle, with the knock-on effect that some of these families may be less open to cooperating earlier on if social services feel a need to intervene, as they distrust authority, and they are scared that the Swedish social services will take their children away from them.

People don’t know that social services help as well. That they’re there to help,” Agha said.

In general, before taking a child into care, social services will offer voluntary help, such as a consultation with families to address issues. Immigrant families are more likely to turn down this help, academic research has found. This, in turn, means that it is more likely that their children will be taken into care, as the situation worsens until social services have no other option.

Birgitta Persdotter, a Karlstad University expert in social work who has researched the issue, told public radio broadcaster Sveriges Radio last year: “Children with a Swedish background receive voluntary help to a much greater extent than children with an immigrant background, whereas children with an immigrant background to a much greater extent are taken into immediate care.”

Additionally, not all newly-arrived parents are aware of how the system works and that they, too, have rights. They are allowed to appeal any decision with the help of a lawyer, and if they don’t speak Swedish they are entitled to an interpreter. But they may be less likely than parents with a Swedish background to use these channels to argue their case.

Another aspect is that while not all immigrant families are the same, some of these families may be more likely to have other risk factors which increase the risk of their children being taken into care.

“Immigrant families are overrepresented in vulnerable areas, where people are worse off, there’s higher unemployment, people are less healthy, there are lots of other background factors here which can affect family relationships, and these statistics as well,” said Agha.

“You need to be aware of that as well, when you’re looking at these statistics. It’s very easy to just say ‘it’s because they’re Muslims’.”

What can Swedish authorities do to combat this?

“They need to listen. They need to take these families’ fears seriously, these fears have been there for a number of years,” Agha explained. She said that although the current debate has been hijacked by forces with ulterior motives, at its root there’s valid criticism.

The Swedish Care of Young Persons (Special Provisions) Act, known as LVU in Swedish, is the law regulating the circumstances in which social services can take a child into care.

“From the beginning there has been a fear and distrust of authorities, and also criticism of how the social services work, and how LVU is applied. We know that there are lawyers, other opposition from within Swedish society who agree with this criticism – not just immigrants or families who have recently arrived in Sweden who have had their children taken into care,” she said.

“There’s a factual issue here which needs to be discussed.”

She argues that Swedish social services need to be more specific when talking about some of the legal terms they use, and improve how they communicate what these terms mean in practice.

“Train social workers more in the kinds of problems these families are experiencing, so they learn to talk more about the issues which affect these groups. Adapt communication, and above all, get rid of this fear, because there are a lot of families who need help from the social services who are afraid of reaching out or decline help, and then time passes and maybe it’s too late,” she said.

This article is part of an in-depth report by The Local on the disinformation campaign against the Swedish social services. Read part one HERE.

Member comments

Log in here to leave a comment.
Become a Member to leave a comment.
For members


STATISTICS: Where in the Nordics do men take the most parental leave?

Denmark's finance minister is taking ten weeks off this summer to look after his baby son. We broke down the statistics on who takes the most parental leave in the Nordic countries.

STATISTICS: Where in the Nordics do men take the most parental leave?

What percentage of the available leave is taken by men? 

In Sweden, since 2019 about 30 percent of the 480 days of shared parental leave is taken by men, according to a study by the Swedish Social Insurance Agency.

In Norway, men who were in work took out 21 percent of the 260 days of parental leave shared by the parents, according to an analysis of fathers of children born in 2017

Danish men, in comparison, took about 14 percent of the days for babies born in 2021, according to a study by Statistics Denmark which showed that the use of parental leave by men had increased significantly from just six percent of the available leave in 2003. 

That breaks down to an average of about 47 days for the average man in Denmark, compared to 144 days for the average man in Sweden and 56 days for the average man in Norway, although these numbers may not be exactly like for like. 


How do the systems for parental leave differ in Denmark, Norway and Sweden? 

Parents in Sweden can share 480 days of leave, 390 days at 80 percent of their income and the rest at the “minimum” level of 180 kronor a day.

Parents in Norway can share a total of 49 weeks (about 343 days) of parental leave at full salary or 56 weeks (about 392 days) at 80 percent of salary. 

Under Denmark’s system, each parent is granted a total of 24 weeks of leave following the birth of each child, with the mother also entitled to four weeks’ pregnancy leave prior to birth, and both parents entitled to two weeks’ leave immediately after birth. 

How many days are reserved for fathers (and other partners)? 

Norway has the most days earmarked to the father or partner, with 15 weeks or 105 days issued on a use-it-or-lose-it basis, followed by Sweden with with 13 weeks or 90 days, and Denmark, with 11 weeks or about 77 days. 

In Norway, if you are taking 100 percent of salary, the leave on offer breaks down into three week’s parental leave before birth, which can only be used by the mother, a mother’s quota of 15 weeks, a second 15-week quota for the mother’s partner, and a shared quota of 16 weeks. 

If you are taking only 80 percent of salary, the mother still gets three weeks off before birth, but both the mother-only and father-only quotas are extended to 19 weeks, while the shared quota is extended to 18 weeks. 

In Sweden, there are 90 so-called “reserve days” which cannot be transferred over to the other parent, which have applied to all children born after 2016. 

In Denmark, the parents can share some of their leave with the other parent, but 11 weeks is earmarked for each one. 

Who is eligible for parental leave payments? 

To be eligible for parental benefit in Norway, you need to have received an income for at least six of the previous 10 months, and to have earned at least 59,310 kroner in that year. You also need to have lived in Norway long enough to qualify for benefits, and to be registered as one of the child’s parents, (which you can do here). You also cannot be working while you receive the benefit. 

To be eligible for parental benefit in Sweden, you need to qualify for Sweden’s social insurance system, be one of the child’s parents, and live with the child in Sweden, in another EU/EES country or in Switzerland. 

To be eligible for parental benefits in Denmark, you need to be employed on the first day of your leave or the day before, have worked 160 hours in for full months before you go on leave, and you must have worked at least 40 hours per month for at least three of the four months.  

You must also physically spend time with the child every day while you are on leave, although this does not mean that you need to live with the child. 

How much parental leave benefits can you get? 

In Denmark, you can receive up to 4,550 kroner per week before tax, so long as you normally work 37 hours a week and have a monthly salary of at least 19,728 kroner. 

In 2023, you can get a maximum of 122.97 Danish kroner per hour before tax in maternity allowance (4,550 kroner/37 hours). If your hourly wage is less than 122.97 kroner, you will be paid the hourly wage you normally have (122.97 kroner in 2023). If your normal hourly wage is less than 122.97 kroner, you will be paid the hourly wage you normally have rather than the top rate. 

In Sweden, you get paid 80 percent of your salary if you take out parental leave seven days a week up to a maximum payment of 1,116 kronor a day. 

In Norway, while you can get 100 percent of your income this is capped at 711,720 kroner.