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SWISS CITIZENSHIP

How Switzerland’s Social Democrats want to introduce ‘citizenship by birth’

Swiss citizenship could be made much easier to achieve under a new set of rules by the country’s Social Democrats, including allowing citizenship by birth in a manner similar to the United States and France.

A picture of a Swiss passport up close
Will Switzerland introduce relaxed rules for citizenship? Photo: Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP

Switzerland’s Social Democrats want to relax Switzerland’s tough naturalisation and citizenship rules to allow “citizenship by birth”, potentially providing an easier path to citizenship for more than a million Swiss residents. 

In an interview with Swiss media, MP Paul Rechsteiner said ‘jus soli’ – the principle where a person can acquire citizenship by birth, should be introduced in Switzerland. 

Rechsteiner, Switzerland’s longest-serving parliamentarian, says the country’s sizeable foreign population – which is estimated to be at around 25 percent – are excluded from the democratic process. 

READ MORE: How to apply for Swiss citizenship: An essential guide

“Switzerland today is a three-quarter democracy. A quarter of the people have a foreign passport. They are excluded from civil rights.”

“Anyone who is born in a country, grows up here, works, spends his life, i.e. is part of the economy and society, should also have the appropriate rights as a citizen. That is a democratic and human rights principle.”

Currently, even third generation immigrants face barriers to citizenship in Switzerland, which has one of the tightest citizenship regimes in Europe. 

COMPARE: Which European countries have the toughest rules for gaining citizenship?

Rechsteiner however said rules would be put in place to prevent “birth tourism”.

“Birth tourism is not meant by jus soli”, Rechsteiner said, pointing to a proposal from Germany whereby one parent must live in the country for five years before citizenship can be bestowed. 

Rechsteiner said the Social Democrats wanted to phase out township citizenship, i.e. where the ultimate citizenship decisions are made at a municipal level. 

“Township citizenship is a relic from the state’s early years. The main thing was to regulate who is responsible for the citizens when they became poor, that is, were dependent on support,” he said 

“That is long gone. Today this system is no longer up to date, and it is also unfair.”

“In eastern Switzerland in particular, it is unfortunately the case that it often depends on the municipality whether you get the passport or not. 

“There are those who are very open about this. And others who do everything to prevent naturalisation.”

As The Local has reported previously, there are a myriad of examples where citizenship decisions made at a municipal level have led to absurd results. 

People have been knocked back for not knowing about animals in the local zoo, for not liking hiking and for not remembering the correct year that 18th-century landslides took place. 

READ MORE: The nine most surprising questions on Switzerland’s citizenship exam

How likely is this plan? 

While the Social Democrats are one of Switzerland’s major parties, such a plan is likely to encounter some resistance, particularly from the far-right Swiss People’s Party who have consistently advocated for a tough naturalisation framework. 

Rechsteiner cited the fight for women’s suffrage as an example of how these difficulties might be overcome. 

“When it came to women’s suffrage, it seemed impossible for a long time in Switzerland to change anything,” he said. 

Women did not receive the right to vote in Switzerland until 1971, while they did not have full voting rights in all Swiss cantons until 1990. 

“That is too little for our self-image to be a proud democracy. We finally need a citizenship that reflects Switzerland and is suitable for the future.”

Member comments

  1. I don’t know where folks keep getting the idea that citizenship is “easy” in the US. Except for the whole “being born in the US makes you a citizen” thing, getting a green card and citizenship is a very difficult and expensive process (there’s a reason folks go there illegally, and not for “birth tourism,” which is more of a right wing BS talking point).

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ZURICH

EXPLAINED: How Zurich has simplified the Swiss citizenship process

Voters in the Swiss canton of Zurich on May 15th approved a proposal to simplify naturalisation requirements for the canton's 350,000 foreigners. Here's what you need to know.

EXPLAINED: How Zurich has simplified the Swiss citizenship process

On May 15th, voters in the Swiss canton of Zurich overwhelmingly approved a proposal to simplify the canton’s naturalisation process for foreigners. 

Several questions were on the ballot, including reduced fees for younger people who pursue Swiss citizenship, longer waiting times for those convicted of criminal offences and a shift towards online naturalisation. A summary of the results can be seen here

For foreigners living in Zurich and wanting to acquire the famous red passport, perhaps the most important question on the ballot was making the requirements uniform on a cantonal basis, rather than allowing them to differ from municipality to municipality, as is the current case. 

Here’s what you need to know. Please note that while Zurich voters approved the changes, as at May 16th they have not been formally implemented. 

‘Uniform basic requirements’ for citizenship flagged

While anyone who is successfully naturalised will get the same famous red passport no matter where they do so, the actual process differs dramatically depending on where you do it. 

The primary naturalisation process takes place at a communal level, which means there can be different requirements from municipality to municipality. 

With 26 cantons, four official languages and century after century of tradition, these traditions and cultural quirks have had plenty of time to ferment and develop. 

As The Local has covered several times before, this includes a knowledge test about specifics in the local commune which often leads to absurd consequences, while in some places local villagers and neighbours will have a say on whether a person should receive citizenship. 

People have been knocked back for a range of reasons, including not liking hiking, not knowing enough about local zoo animals, not knowing enough about cheese and just not being deserving enough.  

READ MORE: The ten most surprising questions on Switzerland’s citizenship exam

Recognising the difficulties, the Swiss government in 2018 revised the Civil Rights Act, which included uniform basic requirements for citizenship. 

The cantons however retain a degree of flexibility when it comes to implementing the rules, which is why they are being put to a vote on May 15th. 

Basic knowledge test

Each naturalisation process includes a basic knowledge test. 

The tests are carried out at a municipal level and vary from place to place, prompting Swiss national broadcaster SRF to report in 2017 that Switzerland “has as many naturalisation procedures as there are municipalities”. 

Zurich, Switzerland’s most populous canton, has 162 municipalities. While it might be a slight exaggeration to say there are 162 unique tests, the questions can vary greatly. 

The May 15th vote standardised the process by establishing a basic knowledge test for the entire canton. 

The test includes 350 questions about Swiss history, tradition, politics and culture, with a focus on Zurich. 

Anyone taking the test will be given 50 questions at random and must answer at least 30 correctly to pass. 

What other requirements were up for a vote on May 15th?

In addition to the above, there are three other changes forecast as part of the new rules. 

People under 18 will face tighter rules for naturalisation if they are found guilty of a crime. 

Referendum: Zurich to vote on lower voting age

According to the new law, juveniles will not be able to apply for naturalisation for two years after a minor crime (i.e. shoplifting, simple bodily harm, property damage) or for five years for major crimes (i.e. robbery, murder, rape). 

The changes will also lay the groundwork for naturalisation processes to take place online. A handful of cantons including Bern and Vaud already do this, but no such online system is established in Zurich. 

Finally, the law will also reduce the cost for younger people to apply for citizenship. 

More information is available here. 

What did the parties say before the vote?

Although polling was minimal, the changes have won widespread support among Swiss political parties. 

All of the major Swiss political parties support the change, with only the right-wing Swiss People’s Party (SVP) opposed. 

Writing in the Swiss press, the SVP’s Diego Bonato suggested multicultural Zurich should have tighter naturalisation rules than the rest of the country rather than the other way around to ensure proper integration. 

“The higher the multicultural proportion of the population, the more closely you have to pay attention to naturalisation” 

While the SVP is Switzerland’s largest and most popular political party, it has comparatively lower influence in Zurich. 

The Social Democrats, who hold the mayorship in the city, are in favour of the proposal and hit back at suggestions it did not promote integration. 

“The new citizenship law is shaped by the idea that early and rapid naturalisation promotes integration. However, citizenship should be the the end of successful integration, not the beginning.”

“Foreigners who wish to remain in our country permanently and become part of Swiss society must society, must (still) undergo an integration process lasting several years.”

Who was able to vote?

Much like Switzerland’s men taking until the 1970s to decide whether women should get the vote, it is perhaps a paradox that foreigners’ fates will be put to a vote without their input. 

Only Swiss citizens have the right to vote in the most cases, although there are limited voting rights in some cases at a municipal level in some parts of the country. 

Efforts to provide similar rights in Zurich have continued to stall. 

Around one quarter of Zurich’s population do not have the right to vote, although it can be as high as 50 percent in some municipalities. 

Approximately 1.5 million people live in Zurich. 

More information about voting in Zurich, including details about the upcoming referendum votes, can be found here. 

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