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ENVIRONMENT

Atlantic salmon added to Norwegian list of threatened animals 

The Atlantic salmon, synonymous with Norway, has been added to a list of species that are endangered or threatened by extinction.

Pictured is an Atlantic salmon.
The Atlantic salmon, pictured, has been added to a list of species that are nearly engendered, endangered or extinct. Photo by William W. Hartley / USFWS / AFP

The wild Atlantic salmon has been added to the ‘red list’, a database of threatened, endangered and extinct species in Norway, for the first time after its population halved over the past 40 years.

The fish, an icon of Norway depicted on petroglyphs and featured heavily in Norse mythology, has been classified as “near threatened” on the red list, which is complied by the Species Data Bank, due to declining stocks. 

“The main reason the species is on the red list is that we have seen a decline,” Snorre Henriksen, senior advisor at the Species Data Bank, explained to public broadcaster NRK. 

Lice and diseases spread by escaped farmed salmon are considered the biggest reason for declining salmon stocks in Norway, according to the species monitor.

“Infections related to salmon farming are also a significant threat,” the Species Data Bank also wrote in its database entry on Atlantic salmon.

Between 1983 and 2019, the number of adult salmon returning from sea to spawning pools decreased by 51 percent. 

Another animal that conjures images of the Nordics, reindeer, is also set to be added to the red list. Encroachment onto reindeer habitats is seen as the factor affecting the species the most.

READ ALSO: Norwegian salmon farming moves to cleaner indoor waters

Henriksen said that the Species Data Bank has noticed climate change was beginning to threaten many species. 

“The big change is that many species are threatened by climate change. So it is a rather dramatic change since the last time (the list was updated),” the advisor said. 

In total, 333 species were added to the list, and 309 were removed. There are 2,752 species on the list, which has been updated for the first time since 2015. 

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ENVIRONMENT

KEY POINTS: Why is Sweden planning to cull half its wolf population?

Sweden's government has announced that it will allow a major wolf cull this year, with hunters licensed to kill as many as half of the estimated 400 animals in the country. What is going on?

KEY POINTS: Why is Sweden planning to cull half its wolf population?

How many wolves are there in Sweden? 

Wolves were extinct in Sweden by the mid-1880s, but a few wolves came over the Finnish border in the 1980s, reestablishing a population.  

There are currently 480 wolves living in an estimated 40 packs between Sweden and Norway, with the vast majority — about 400 — in central Sweden. 

How many wolves should there be? 

The Swedish parliament voted in 2013, however, for the population to be kept at between 170 to 270 individuals, with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency then reporting to the EU that Sweden would aim to keep the population at about 270 individuals to meet the EU’s Habitats Directive. 

In 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency was commissioned by the government to update the analysis,  and make a new assessment of the reference value for the wolf’s population size. It then ruled in a report the population should be maintained at about 300 individuals in order to ensure a “favourable conservation status and to be viable in the long term”. 

What’s changed now? 

Sweden’s right-wing opposition last week voted that the target number should be reduced to 170 individuals, right at the bottom of the range agreed under EU laws. With the Moderate, Christian Democrat, Centre, and Sweden Democrats all voting in favour, the statement won a majority of MPs.

“Based on the premise that the Scandinavian wolf population should not consist of more than 230 individuals, Sweden should take responsibility for its part and thus be in the lower range of the reference value,” the Environment and Agriculture Committee wrote in a statement.

Why is it a political issue? 

Wolf culling is an almost totemic issue for many people who live in the Swedish countryside, with farmers often complaining about wolves killing livestock, and hunters wanting higher numbers of licenses to be issued to kill wolves. 

Opponents of high wolf culls complain of an irrational varghat, or “wolf hate” among country people, and point to the fact that farmers in countries such as Spain manage to coexist with a much higher wolf population. 

So what has the government done? 

Even though the ruling Social Democrats voted against the opposition’s proposal, Rural Affairs Minister Anna-Caren Sätherberg agreed that the wolf population needed to be culled more heavily than in recent years. As a result, the government has asked the Environmental Protection Agency to once again reassess how many wolves there should be in the country. 

“We see that the wolf population is growing every year and with this cull, we want to ensure that we can get down to the goal set by parliament,” Sätherberg told the public broadcaster SVT.

Sweden would still meet its EU obligations on protecting endangered species, she added, although she said she understood country people “who live where wolves are, who feel social anxiety, and those who have livestock and have been affected”.

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