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Are international workers the answer to Denmark’s labour shortage?

Denmark’s low unemployment rate is creating recruitment challenges for Danish companies. A recent government initiative aims to resolve the issue, but some say it overlooks the importance of international labour. 

Are international workers the answer to Denmark’s labour shortage?
Business organisations have called for Denmark to do more to enable companies to draw on skilled foreign labour. Photo by Darth Liu on Unsplash

On September 10th, Denmark became the only European nation with no Covid-19 curbs. Denmark is also one of only six European Union countries whose economy has surpassed pre-pandemic levels, reports Statistics Denmark. And, it is one of only four EU countries where unemployment is now lower than before the pandemic, according to recent figures from Eurostat.

Although this sounds like a hat trick of good news for Denmark, the country now faces a new challenge: maintaining economic growth while facing a severe labour shortage.

Earlier this month, Statistics Denmark announced that the number of job vacancies in Denmark reached its highest level in more than a decade. Data from the Danish Agency for Labour Market and Recruitment from the month of June show 22.5 percent of companies’ recruitment attempts were in vain. 

“It is gratifying that unemployment is falling rapidly in Denmark, but it also means that there will be fewer people taking vacancies,” said Steen Nielsen, head of labour market and policy at Danish Industry (Dansk Industri, or DI), an organisation representing approximately 18,500 companies across Denmark. 

“Without more employees, we will very soon experience a significant slowdown in economic growth,” Morten Granzau, DI’s deputy director, said.

What is Denmark doing about the labour shortage?

When Denmark’s government announced its 2022 budget proposal August 30th, critics claimed the proposal didn’t do enough to resolve Denmark’s labour shortage. Little more than one week later, the government announced a new initiative, Denmark Can Do More (Danmark kan mere I) that aims to increase employment by more than 10,000 people by 2030. 

The initiative consists of several efforts to increase Denmark’s labour force. It cuts the standard monthly unemployment insurance payment and shortens the eligibility period for new graduates to encourage them to join the labour force, requires some migrants to work a minimum of 37 hours per week to receive welfare benefits, and incentivizes employees to work past retirement age, among other policy changes.

It is the first in a series of reform proposals that aim to increase growth and employment in Denmark, according to the Ministry of Finance (Finansministeriet). 

Although Denmark’s business community says the initiative is a good start, it falls short of resolving Denmark’s labour shortage – especially in the short-term. DI, the Danish Employers’ Association (Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening), and the Danish Chamber of Commerce (Dansk Erhverv), among others, have expressed this concern and reiterated the important role of international labour.

“With just over 10,000 more sets of hands, the government only offsets what it has already lost in the workforce,” said Jakob Brandt, CEO of SMVdanmark, an organization representing 18,000 small and medium-sized companies in Denmark. For example, the 16,000 applicants for Denmark’s early retirement scheme and the 25,000 new public sector jobs created since the start of the pandemic.

According to hospitality trade association HORESTA, Denmark’s hotel and restaurant industry alone is short-staffed by 12,000 people. Recent data from Statistics Denmark shows that four out of five hotels and two-thirds of restaurants experienced labour shortages in August.

“The problems are of such a magnitude that we can not solve it alone with the people who are already in this country,” Kirsten Munch, political director at HORESTA, said.

What role does international labour play?

Within the same week the initiative was announced, the leaders of Denmark’s liberal, conservative, and far left parties all expressed the importance of foreign labour in resolving the shortage. 

Sofie Carsten Nielsen, leader of the Social Liberal (Radikale Venstre) party, said foreign labour may be the fastest way to alleviate the urgent need for labour. “We know how it works, and it does not take long negotiations,” Nielsen said. “Giving companies better access to pick up skilled labour outside Denmark and outside Europe is low-hanging fruit.”

One suggestion to attract foreign labour is to reduce the salary requirements for skilled non-EU nationals to qualify for Denmark’s Pay Limit Scheme (beløbsordningen), a visa scheme only currently available to those with a minimum annual salary of 445,000 DKK. 

“[Reducing the Pay Limit Scheme minimum compensation] will make us more competitive in terms of attracting the foreign workforce that many other countries are also longing for at the moment,” said Brian Mikkelsen, CEO of Dansk Erhverv.

However, the now-governing Social Democrats have continued to oppose the reduction of the Pay Limit Scheme‘s minimum salary requirement.

Minister of Employment Peter Hummelgaard said the party is “generally pleased” with the current arrangements for recruiting qualified foreign labour, but are open to adjustments if they prove necessary in the future.

“It is the government’s first priority to ensure that the unemployed who are already in Denmark have the opportunity to get a job,” Hummelgaard told The Local. “If there are areas that are not possible to cover with Danish labour, we must of course turn our attention to the EU and next to third countries for qualified foreign labour.”

The Danish People’s Party (Dansk Folkeparti) has also expressed opposition to reducing the scheme’s minimum salary to prevent underpaid labor and social dumping.

“Dansk Folkeparti prioritises finding or creating jobs for the group of unemployed people in Denmark who are able to work before importing a workforce from other countries,” Bent Bøgsted, the party’s labour market spokesperson, told The Local.

The anti-immigration party believes Denmark’s unemployed workers could meet current needs, albeit with some upskilling.

“Unfortunately we see employers favouring cheap labor from non-EU countries and Eastern Europe instead. …This is unacceptable,” Bøgsted said.

Will attracting international labour be included in future initiatives?

After the “Denmark Can Do More” initiative was announced September 7th, several parties in the country’s parliament continued negotiations on additional reforms to reduce the current labour shortage, along with industry stakeholders. 

“We (DI) are part of those discussions and though we don’t know what will come of those discussions yet, it’s clear that the government and other parties of parliament recognise the need for international labour as one way to solve that,” Søren Kjærsgaard Høfler, a political consultant in global mobility at DI, told The Local. 

“Though DI appreciates the suggested reforms we see a need to act now, since the situation on the labour market calls for action right now,” Høfler added.

Any additional policy changes may be included in the financial act coming out later this autumn. 

 “Whether we bring workers into the labour market sooner, keep them longer, or bring in foreign labour with fewer hurdles, everyone wants to make sure there is enough labour for Danish companies to thrive,” Høfler said. “Some problems can be resolved through structural changes in Denmark’s own labour market, but we also know international labour is crucial. It’s not either/or; it’s both/and.”

Updated September 21st, 2021 to include comment from Danish People’s Party and on September 22nd, 2021 to include comment from Social Democrats.

Member comments

  1. Reducing labor rates is the fastest way to put downward pressure on all labor rates as companies will always select cheaper foreign workers over more expensive nationals. This scheme is why real wages in the USA have reminded stagnant for years, pre-COVID, as citizens struggle to compete for jobs taken by immigrants, many illegal. Currently the US is suffering a labor shortage as well but a lot of that is due to political decisions which do not require any work from those receiving public assistance. Data indicates that low skilled workers if their family is included receive more in public assistance than they produce for a net loss! If this scheme is ever implemented there will be no going back. The solution may be short term contract workers who must leave at the end of their contract and can not bring family members or if they do they are not eligible for any financial assistance . And if they do not depart at the end of their contract the employer is fined.

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For members


Reader Question: Do you need to be paid in Denmark to get job insurance?

A reader got in touch who has residency rights in Denmark, but is paid by a foreign company in a foreign currency into a foreign bank account. Is he still eligible for Denmark's A-kasse job insurance?

Reader Question: Do you need to be paid in Denmark to get job insurance?

The reader, a British person who has residency in Denmark under the post-Brexit deal, pays B-tax to the Danish government, meaning he is classed as self-employed or a freelancer, and has joined the A-kasse unemployment fund set up for his industry. 

“I was assured by the helpful sales person that I was eligible for cover,” he says. “But I have a feeling the person wasn’t entirely sure,” he told The Local.

According to Jes Flatau, the legal chief at Akademikernes A-kasse, which describes itself as “Denmark’s largest and cheapest unemployment fund”, the advisor is right. 

“If the employer does not report wages and working hours to the Danish Tax Authority (SKAT), it is foreign work. And this applies regardless of whether the work is carried out in Denmark or not,” he told The Local.

“But according to the Danish national unemployment insurance rules, you can use foreign work to meet the income requirement for the right to unemployment benefits.”

Amalie Mathiassen, press spokesperson for Danske A-kasser, Denmark’s association for unemployment insurance funds, agreed that it was “irrelevant which country the employer is domiciled in, or which currency the salary is paid in”. 

READ ALSO: Everything foreigners in Denmark need to know about unemployment insurance

This does not, however, mean that the reader necessarily will receive unemployment benefits should he become unemployed, Flatau warned, or at least not yet. 

“The fact that he can register with an A-kasse does not mean that he can also receive unemployment benefits. It requires at least one year of uninterrupted membership of the A-kasse and that he fulfils an income requirement of approximately 250,000 Danish kroner, earned within a maximum of three years.”

There is also ceiling of 21,000 kroner per month that can qualify towards this amount, meaning the earliest you can meet the income requirement is after 12 months (21,000 x 12 = 252,000). 

As the reader’s employment is considered “foreign”, his employer does not have to report his salary to the Danish Tax Authority’s income register, as Danish employers must. This means he will also need to be able to document his income with payslips and employment contracts if he wants to be eligible for a-kasse payouts. 

The reader in this case said that he was paying B-tax, which means he is treated as self-employed or a freelancer, and pays tax on his income after he has been paid and reported it to the tax authority, so he is already reporting income to the tax agency.   

Finally, you need to be “available to the labour market” to receive payouts, which the reader would be, as his post-Brexit residency gives him the right to work in Denmark. 

“You must have a work and residence permit that allows you to take up work at a day’s notice,” Mathiassen said. 

These rules for those with ‘foreign employment’ also apply to members of an A-kasse who leave Denmark to work in a country outside the EEA and Great Britain and Switzerland, but have retained membership of their A-kasse. 

What if the reader is posted to Denmark? 

EU workers seconded or posted to Denmark by a company in another EU state do not need to meet the legislation on social security in the country in which they are working, so would not be eligible to join an A-kasse. They would instead be paid unemployment benefit by their home country if made unemployed. 

If this was the case with the reader, it would say on their payslips that they were making national insurance contributions to their home country, in the reader’s case to National Insurance UK. This is because the rule also applies to UK nationals who have residence and working rights in Denmark under the Brexit Withdrawal Agreement.