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FINANCE

From renovating property to buying a new car: 28 tax ‘bonuses’ you can claim from the Italian government

Italian bureaucracy is notoriously complicated, but for those who know how to navigate the system, incentives are on offer for everything from making your property more eco-friendly to buying a new TV. Here’s a guide to some of Italy's most advantageous tax breaks, subsidies and discounts.

From renovating property to buying a new car: 28 tax 'bonuses' you can claim from the Italian government
Could you benefit from Italy's government bonuses? Photo by INA FASSBENDER / AFP

Italy often deploys financial incentives to nudge its residents into useful projects, whether it’s installing energy-efficient appliances or having kids.

There are usually strings attached, and applying can be a fiddly and time-consuming process. You may well need to ask a professional to shepherd you through the various steps, and even once you’ve claimed, don’t bank on receiving anything back straight away. 

But with those provisos in mind, Italy’s government bonuses could make a significant difference to your budget – in some cases, to the tune of tens of thousands of euros.

Here’s a list of the main perks on offer.

Covid-19 emergency bonus

Various rounds of emergency aid have been made available over the past 18 months for people affected financially by the coronavirus pandemic. 

Small business owners and self-employed people with a VAT number (partita IVA) are eligible for the latest payout if they can demonstrate they took a significant hit to their income in 2020-21 compared to the year before. Applications are open until September 2nd: find all the details here.

Bonuses for buying, building and renovating property

  • First home bonus

People buying their first residential property in Italy are eligible for reductions on registration, mortgage and land registry tax, as well as a lower rate of VAT if the purchase is subject to sales tax. They can also claim credit against personal income tax on estate agent fees and mortgage interest. Find official information here.

First-time homebuyers aged 35 or under are entitled to further savings, provided their household income does not top €40,000 a year. In this case certain taxes are wiped out altogether, notary fees are halved, and the state will even cover your deposit and guarantee loans of up €250,000. Read The Local’s guide here

  • Renovation bonus

The bonus ristrutturazioni allows you to apply for a 50 percent tax reduction on renovating your property, on expenses up to €96,000. Work might include repairing structural damage, having the wiring replaced, adding a garage, making the property more wheelchair-accessible, installing security systems, removing asbestos or adding safety features such as gas detectors.

You’ll receive the bonus in the form of an annual offset on income tax over ten years. Find official information here.

  • Facades bonus

If your property needs work on its exterior, the bonus facciate allows you to deduct 90 percent of the cost incurred for renovating the facades of buildings (including street-facing balconies), with no maximum spending limits.

The main condition is that your property should be located in a town centre or other populated area, not in the middle of nowhere where no one else will see the improvements. Find the full terms here

Photo: Tiziana Fabi/AFP
  • Ecobonus

If you carry out work to make your home more energy efficient and eco-friendly, for example by replacing your boiler with a low-carbon alternative, improving insulation, installing solar panels, fitting sun-resistant mosquito screens or even adding charging points for electric cars, you can claim between 50 and 85 percent of the expenses back.

The amount depends on the type of work you have done, and it’s delivered either in the form of tax credits or via creditors or contractors who’ll recover the credit on your behalf – which means that even people who aren’t tax residents in Italy can benefit. Find out more here

  • Earthquake bonus

The so-called sisma bonus is for properties in areas of Italy classed at medium to high seismic risk (categories 1, 2 or 3). You can claim back 50 percent of the cost of making your property earthquake-safer, rising to as much as 80 percent if you can demonstrate that the final result reduced seismic risk by one or two classes and 85 percent if it involves work on shared parts of apartment buildings.

The scheme also covers buildings that are demolished altogether and rebuilt. Find more details here

  • Superbonus

A ‘super’ version of both the eco and earthquake bonuses is also available, which in certain cases could allow you to benefit from a tax deduction of up to 110 percent.

The basic principles are the same, but the government has upped the allowance on work carried out between July 1st 2020 and June 30th 2022. To qualify for the highest deductions, the renovations have to be significant.

Read The Local’s guide to the superbonus here.

  • Garden bonus

If you’re considering adding or renovating green space, you can apply for a 36 percent tax deduction on landscaping, installing irrigation systems, building a well, creating a roof garden or other significant work on your property’s outdoor areas.

The bonus verde is worth a maximum of €1,800 per property and can be claimed on more than one home in your name. Routine maintenance and upkeep of your garden does not qualify. Find all the conditions here

READ ALSO: The building bonuses you could claim in Italy in 2021

Photo: Alicia Steels/Unsplash

Other home improvement bonuses

  • Water-saving bonus

The government will pay you up to €1,000 to upgrade your toilet, taps, shower and other bathroom or kitchen fittings to make them more water-efficient.

The bonus risparmio idrico, which you can claim until the end of 2021, was introduced in the latest budget but has yet to be finalised. Details of how to apply will be published here.

  • Drinking water bonus

With the bonus acqua potabile, you’ll get back 50 percent of the cost of installing filtering, cooling or mineralisation systems that improve the quality of your tap water and make you less likely to buy bottled.

You can claim on expenses of up to €1,000 for individuals or €5,000 for businesses. Find more details here.

  • Furniture and appliances bonus

The bonus mobili lets you claim a 50 percent tax deduction on the cost of furnishing a property that’s under renovation – so not just if you fancy getting a new wardrobe. 

It also applies to new appliances such as fridges, ovens, washing machines and electric heaters, which must be rated at least A+ for energy efficiency (or A for ovens).

If you buy them by the end of 2021 you can claim on expenditure of up to €16,000, with the bonus delivered in the form of ten annual tax credits. Find more information here

  • TV bonus

The government recently extended its TV bonus – previously only for low-income households – to every resident in Italy, to help with the cost of replacing older sets when Italy switches its signal to DVB-T2 in June 2022 and only the latest-generation equipment will work. 

In exchange for trading in a TV purchased before December 2018, you can get up to €100 off the price of a new TV or decoder, in the form of a discount applied directly at the cash register. Find more information here.

Bonuses for families

  • Expectant mothers bonus

The bonus mamma domani is a one-off cash payment of €800 for women either expecting or adopting a child, and can be claimed from the seventh month of pregnancy. You can apply online via INPS, Italy’s social security and welfare system.

  • Baby bonus

The bonus bebè is a means-tested monthly allowance for parents of babies born or adopted in 2021, until they pass their first birthday or adoption anniversary. How much you get depends on your economic circumstances, but it starts at €80 a month and rises to €160 (or more if you have another child). Find more details here

READ ALSO: Italy’s ‘baby bonuses’: What payments are available and how do you claim?

Giving birth in Spain
Photo: Pexels / Pixabay
  • Nursery bonus

Other support available for parents includes the bonus asilo nido, an allowance towards the cost of kindergarten for children under three years old. The bonus is means-tested and ranges from €1,500 to €3,000 per year depending on your income. Apply online here

  • Separated parents bonus

Italy plans to introduce a monthly allowance for separated or divorced parents who are struggling to pay child support as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. The government has not yet approved the details, but preliminary proposals are for a payment of up to €800 per month for parents who have lost, reduced or suspended work due to the health emergency.

  • Wedding bonus 

Could the government help cover the cost of your big day? To help out Italy’s wedding industry, which has been hit hard by Covid-19 restrictions, there are proposals to offer brides and grooms a tax deduction on spending of up to €25,000 on outfits, catering, flowers, make-up artists, photographers, wedding planners and other services. The details are still being finalised, but the bonus matrimonio could apply from 2021 to 2023.

READ ALSO: How weddings are restarting in Italy with the ‘green pass’

Photo: Alberto Pizzoli/AFP

Health bonuses

  • Disability bonuses

Italy offers a range of financial support for people with disabilities and their families, from tax relief on medical expenses to discounts on wheelchair-friendly vehicles and help with the cost of making your home more accessible.

Find out more about the assistance available here

  • Glasses bonus

You may be aware that medical expenses not covered by the public health system are tax deductible by 19 percent, but not everyone realises that sight tests, glasses, contact lenses and even lens solution are included.

The tax relief only kicks in once you spend more than €129.11, and you’ll need to detail your expenses on a 730 tax returnFind more information here

  • Pet bonus

Similarly, pet owners can deduct 19 percent of their vet bills from their 730 tax return if they spend between €129.11 and €550 over the year. That makes the maximum tax relief available worth around €80. Find out how to claim here

Bonuses for low-income households

Italy reserves some benefits for low-income households, defined as those with an ISEE (Indicatore della Situazione Economica Equivalente, or Equivalent Financial Position Indicator – a way of measuring total income and assets divided by members of the household) below a certain threshold.

  • Third child bonus

Households with three or more children under 18 and an ISEE of around €8,800 are eligible for a bonus terzo figlio, in the form of a yearly allowance paid in instalments. It’s worth around €1,900 in total.

You can apply for the 2021 bonus until January 31st 2022, after which it will be replaced by a universal child allowance (assegno unico figli) that the government is currently in the process of introducing.

  • Utility bills bonus

Households with an ISEE below €8,265 (or €20,000 for families with four children or more) are entitled to a discount on their water, electricity and gas bills, which from July 2021 is calculated based on tax returns and applied automatically without the need to request it. Find more details here

  • Internet bonus

Until October 1st 2021, households with an ISEE of under €20,000 can claim up to €500 from the government towards boosting their connectivity: €300 to get a new high-speed internet connection and €200 to buy a new computer or tablet. It’s up to the provider to give the discount at check-out. More details here.

Transport bonuses

  • Low-emission car bonus

Italy first introduced a bonus to tempt drivers to trade in their old cars for lower-emission models back in 2019, and you can continue to benefit from the scheme until the end of 2021 (or as long as funds last).

The government has even upped the maximum discount available: as much as €10,000 off the price tag if you trade in a pre-2011 model for one that produces less than 20g of CO2 per km. You’ll get less for a new car that produces more emissions, or if you don’t hand over an old car for scrap. Find full details here

READ ALSO: ‘How we used a government bonus to buy an electric car in Italy’

Photo: Gabriel Bouys/AFP
  • Public transport bonus

Season passes for local, regional or interregional public transport in Italy are tax-deductible to the tune of 19 percent, up to a maximum spend of €250. Find details here.

Cultural bonuses

  • Culture bonus

In a drive to get teenagers into cultural activities, anyone who turns 18 this year – born in 2002 – can claim €500 from the government to spend on books, music, cinema or theatre tickets, entry to museums or heritage sites, foreign language lessons, newspaper subscriptions and more.

You have until August 31st to register on the government’s 18app website, and until the end of February 2022 to spend the bonus.  

  • Teacher bonus

Teachers can benefit from a similar €500 bonus, to be used on books, magazines, cultural events, masters courses or any other training that serves their professional development. 

READ ALSO: ‘The job can come as a shock’: What it’s really like working as an English teacher in Italy

Only teachers employed in Italian state schools are eligible: claim by applying for the carta del docente (teachers’ card) here.

  • Heritage bonus

Make a donation to restore, maintain or support Italy’s cultural heritage and you’ll be able to deduct 65 percent of the amount from your tax bill over three years.

Projects you can help fund include maintaining the Roman amphitheatre in Verona, supporting the Ravello Festival on the Amalfi Coast or restoring Florence’s public statues and fountains, with thousands of large and small institutions to choose from. Find details (in English) here

READ ALSO: Rome’s Colosseum opens restored underground labyrinth to the public

Photo: Filippo MONTEFORTE / AFP

Italian regions may offer additional bonuses for local residents, so check your region’s website for details.

There are also several bonuses for business owners, investors and self-employed people: find more information on the Revenue Agency’s website.

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For members

PROPERTY

Nine things we’ve learned about claiming Italy’s building ‘superbonus’

Two years after it was introduced, Italy's popular renovation discount scheme continues to cause headaches for homeowners trying to access it. Here's what we've learned so far about claiming the so-called 'superbonus 110'.

Nine things we've learned about claiming Italy's building 'superbonus'

In May 2020, as the pandemic gripped Italy in its first wave, the government introduced a new building bonus programme to kickstart the country’s sluggish, Covid-hit economy.

This emergency response, known as the ‘superbonus 110′, came as part of the government’s Decreto Rilancio (Relaunch Decree), which offered a tax deduction of up to 110% on the expenses related to making energy upgrades and reducing seismic risk.

Other types of building bonuses existed before – and continue to be available.

However, none had offered quite so high a value to those looking to make home improvements on their property.

In fact, not only did the new measure incentivise people to upgrade their existing properties, it encouraged people to buy old, abandoned properties, making previously unfeasible renovation projects, in financial terms, a genuine possibility.

READ ALSO: How Italy’s building ‘superbonus’ has changed in 2022

We counted among those taking the plunge to buy a crumbling and uninhabitable building, with the intention to carry out extensive works thanks to funds from the superbonus.

Our property search completely changed due to the scheme and we planned on taking advantage of the generous sums of state aid.

After looking around and viewing properties for months, attracted by adverts that claimed a property was eligible for restoration with the superbonus, we found an old farmhouse – which had become a derelict wreck – in the lowlands countryside outside Bologna, near where we are already located.

(Photo by Philippe HUGUEN / AFP)

In our case, we had to demolish the old property and rebuild a home from scratch – it couldn’t be restored due to earthquake damage in the area, rendering it far too unstable and destroyed to ever be habitable again.

READ ALSO: Why we decided to build our new house in Italy out of wood

That wasn’t a disappointment as we had the opportunity to design our own home instead, choosing every angle, material, layout and floorplan we wanted. It would have been beyond our means to take on a project like this without the superbonus, but with it, we thought it was possible.

Incredibly, the small print of the incentive permits this too, as the government intended to reinvigorate the nation’s many old, damaged and inefficient buildings and recover lost land – including using existing plots to build new homes if the property was too damaged, as is the case for us.

So, we ploughed all our savings and the money from the sale from my husband’s apartment into a collapsing set of bricks, filled with junk and debris from years gone by.

Although daunting, the figures stacked up and meant that we could create our own country home with a manageable mortgage for around 15 years.

Since I’m now 37, that seemed to work well and it all looked reasonable.

READ ALSO:

But it was just the beginning, before the superbonus spiralled into delays, bureaucratic quagmires and fraudulent claims, which all contributed to making accessing the funds a stalemate for many homeowners.

18 months into our project, we have got as far as a concrete shape in the ground, the old farmhouse demolished, but no sign of our future home still – and a budget that has blown out of proportion, changing our financial future considerably.

18 months ‘ progress looks like this on our Italian property renovation project. Photo: Karli Drinkwater

The clock is ticking with deadlines too, albeit briefly extended, to access the bonus in time.

Since its inception, here’s what we have learned about (trying to) claim Italy’s superbonus 110.

1. Demand slowed down starting renovation projects

Within its first year, interest in the scheme was so high that building companies were overwhelmed and projects piled up in a queue.

Many firms stopped taking on new clients, as they battled to push through projects that were already delayed by months and some homeowners abandoned their plans altogether as a result.

As the backlog built up, firms increased their construction quotes and material prices rose – driven by a worldwide boom in cost increases and also most certainly not helped by Italy’s superbonus-fuelled building boom.

Photo by Bill Mead on Unsplash

The situation has continued to worsen due to the war in Ukraine, which has impeded the import and subsequently driven the cost of raw materials.

It was this demand that also saw us sit and wait, watching on while absolutely nothing happened and we continued to be stuck, all the while watching the project cost continually rack up.

READ ALSO: How to stay out of trouble when renovating your Italian property

It had taken four months just for the sale of the wreck to go through, so we were on the back foot already as far as the bonus is concerned.

We were ready to get going in May 2021 after putting in our offer on the property in the January, but in the past year, very little has happened.

We’ve since had to move out of our apartment, as the new owners understandably wanted to move in and we’re now effectively camping out in a part of my husband’s parents’ new house.

As they, too, are trying to access the superbonus, our life has been packed into boxes while we our living area and office is all squeezed into a garage.

I write this surrounded by scaffolding and orange construction barrier tape, now heavily pregnant, and trying not to lose hope that we’ll have our own place to go to.

Our building project has got no further than knocking down the old wreck and laying down the concrete foundations. One year on, there’s not even the bones of a structure.

READ ALSO:

So is it still demand for the bonus and materials that’s causing the delay?

Yes, but also a huge part is down to how you can claim the bonus.

2. Credit transfer problems stopped the banks lending

Another recent cause for a further slowdown is the change in how people could access the bonus and the increasing difficulty of obtaining credit.

There are a few routes to obtaining Italy’s superbonus. The option of offsetting tax from income is likely only financially viable for high earners, as any unused tax discount gets lost.

Image: moerschy / Pixabay

Let’s say your renovation costs come to €100,000, which are tax deductible at 110 percent for five years.

So, if you have a tax break of €22,000 every year for five years, therefore, but your tax bill from your income tax, known as ‘IRPEF’, falls short of that, you lose the deduction and will end up footing the rest of the renovation bill.

READ ALSO: Do you have to be Italian to claim Italy’s building bonuses?

Note – the latest changes specify tax deductions for the superbonus will be spread over four years, not five as previously.

Little surprise, then, that the other two options to access the funds – transferring the credit (cessione del credito) or discount on the invoice (sconto in fattura) – have been more popular.

It effectively means you either trade the tax credit for cash to an Italian financial institution, such as a bank, for the credit transfer, or directly to your contractor or supplier for the discount on the invoice.

Using the credit transfer system means you’ll get cash back that you paid, directly in your bank account.

It’s a slightly riskier route than a discount on the invoice, as the latter means the the supplier recovers the bonus on your behalf, taking a slice of it as a fee.

So, you get less of the bonus but you don’t have to deal with the paperwork and the contractor takes the burden of getting the credit.

“The easiest option is the discount on the invoice,” tax expert Nicolò Bolla of Accounting Bolla told us.

“It takes care of the credit transfer. If you deal with the bank yourself, it takes some expertise and requires a little knowledge of technology and the system, such as downloading and uploading invoices.

“Contractors have multiple sales, so they are more trained to do that,” he added.

However, billions of euros of fraudulent claims led the government to introduce stricter laws, blocking being able to access credit for months, putting the bonus – and renovation projects – on hold.

Our builders were using credit from financial services provider Poste Italiane, who reduced the threshold of credit. This pushed all the building jobs back by months with no word on when works would start.

In that time, they had to search for another bank willing to fund the bonus, while home construction sites lay dormant.

3. Banks blocked and refused credit halfway through projects

Some homeowners faced extra setbacks when they encountered not only delays, but an outright cancellation of prior agreed credit.

Peter (not his real name) told us that he had got the green light to access one of the other building bonuses that can be used in conjunction with the superbonus – the Renovation Bonus (Bonus Ristrutturazioni).

READ ALSO: Budget 2022: Which of Italy’s building bonuses have been extended?

It allows homeowners to apply for a 50 percent tax reduction on carrying out renovation work in both individual properties and condominiums.

The maximum limit on expenses of €96,000 and the 50 percent offset to taxes is divided into annual instalments for 10 years. Or you can apply for the invoice discount or credit transfer.

Photo by Cristina Gottardi on Unsplash

He applied and was approved for credit transfer for works on his home in Modigliana, Emilia Romagna. After buying a property with his partner in December 2020, they began renovations in January 2021, based on credit approved by Italian bank UniCredit.

He told us they carried out €60,000 of works for a new floor and underfloor, electrics and plumbing throughout, a new boiler, replastering walls and installing a new bathroom.

That means that €30,000 credit was due from the bank, but Peter told us they are now refusing to pay out.

“The excuse from the bank is that we didn’t sign with them, however they didn’t ask us to sign anything when they opened the portal for us at the beginning,” he told us.

So, while the bank registered the renovation jobs for them on the government’s portal in order to be able to claim the bonus, they now refuse to return the credit as originally agreed.

“The thing that upsets me so much with UniCredit is we made about 10 payments to builders and suppliers costing €7.50 a time (in administration fees) to make it, and taking the time to go into the bank especially, to get it registered correctly. And to be let down by them now, really is pretty bad,” he added.

Taking this route is “harder” according to Bolla, as “banks prefer to deal with larger businesses than to give credit to individuals,” he said.

For Peter, he now has the option of deducting the tax from his annual income tax bill or finding another bank to take on and transfer the credit.

4. Finding other solutions to open up the credit transfer system

As accessing finance slowed down and projects ground to a halt, the government intervened with yet another regulatory change to the superbonus.

Along with extending the deadline of 30 percent completion of works for single family homes by three months – to the end of September 30th 2022 – the authorities also looked at how to make accessing the funds more straightforward.

The reason for so many changes stems from how the superbonus originally started.

“Two years ago, it was the Wild West. Anyone could get credit to use the bonus – a person, company or business. Due to that, the authorities lost track of sales and plenty of fraudulent claims slipped through the net,” according to Bolla.

“Everything stopped. Then they regulated too much, creating more bureaucracy and delays. So now, they’ve deregulated a little to reopen the transfer of credit,” he added.

Understanding why there were delays to accessing the bonus are complex and manifold. Along with the reasons above, banks also faced rising inflation, which in part caused them to stop lending.

“Somebody needs to offset the tax at some point. Many banks wanted to buy the credit and resell it to larger banks, but any credit that couldn’t be offset in their taxes got wasted.

“It made the banks less willing to buy credit, which in turn slowed down companies’ and individuals’ ability to access it,” he added.

Now, to keep better track of works being done, Italy’s Inland Revenue Agency (L’Agenzia delle Entrate) has introduced better tracking systems in its latest ruling. These will follow the trail of where the money is going, with the aim of cutting down on time lost to bureaucracy.

5. You might – legally – be left with a half-finished house

Depending on what you’ve agreed with your construction company, you may be taking a gamble with the superbonus no matter what, even if works have begun and the system has eased the bottleneck on claiming the funds.

Our builders would only go ahead with the project if we signed a document, in short saying that we understand the project won’t be finished if the funds aren’t available in time or if works roll on past the deadline.

Photo by Filiz Elaerts on Unsplash

The firm wasn’t going to be liable for paying for the construction of our home (and others’ projects too) if they continued to get caught in delays.

In this case, we had no choice. Sign it and hope for the best or lose the €200,000 that has already gone into the works and wreck purchase so far.

6. There are added fees to account for when claiming the superbonus

If you’ve ever sold or bought property in Italy, you’ll know there is an abundance of hidden costs associated with it.

From agency and notary fees, taxes to legal costs, buying a property in Italy can incur another ten percent of the purchase price. For a list of the hidden costs to watch out for, see our guide here.

When it comes to restoring properties using the superbonus, you’ll need to fork out for various certificates, including an energy certificate known as ‘Certificato Energetico APE’ to prove that the property would benefit from energy upgrades using government funds.

This will also need to be done afterwards to prove that the property meets the requirements of the superbonus and has jumped up at least two energy classes.

You may also incur charges from your local town hall or comune for making changes to the property. In our case, as it’s a considerable project, the administrative fee just for submitting our house plans to review cost €12,000.

In total, the cost of fees on our project – before any restoration works using the bonus have taken place – have come to €30,000.

7. The amount you claim and pay continues to rise

Since the superbonus began, the scope of house restoration projects has changed significantly.

The noted demand pushed up construction quotes and material prices continue to rise, vastly increasing the scale of a project’s budget.

It will come as a blow to home renovators who thought they were potentially getting considerable sums of money from the government and therefore making huge savings.

In fact, there will still be large pots of funds to come from the government, but the problem is the price you pay will track the increases and rise too.

Our particular home renovation project has almost doubled since we began.

We initially accounted for a final cost of €450,000 for all works, using the superbonus for almost half of that.

Instead, the quote we received in November was over €700,000 (on top of what we’ve paid for the wreck) and we were told this is unlikely to be the final cost, rising in line with continuing material price rises when works do finally get underway.

The impact of this is life-changing. In our case, it means we’ve had to apply for soaring monthly repayments for 25 years instead of 15. And that’s only if the bank agrees to grant us such a huge financial commitment – which it has, as yet, not done.

8. You might have to pay taxes if you sell your house after claiming the superbonus

At least for a while, you may have to stick with the property you’ve renovated using the superbonus.

Once you’ve claimed this building bonus, essentially you can’t sell it on for another five years if you want to avoid paying capital gains tax.

Tax expert Nicolò Bolla said that this depends on when you bought the property, however.

If you already owned the house for more than five years and took advantage of the superbonus, you can sell it on with no capital gains tax.

On the other hand, if you just bought the property to benefit from the bonus, and therefore have only owned it for under five years, you’ll be liable for the tax – that is, if you make a gain on its sale.

If you bought an old wreck and renovated it, for instance, it’s likely that you will.

For more advice on selling your property after using the superbonus, remember to check with professionals beforehand.

9. It continues to be popular and set back by delays

Despite the recently extended deadline, homeowners continue to wait in queues for their projects to begin or be completed.

Tax expert Bolla told us he gets “daily requests” for the superbonus, but issues a word of caution about the incentive.

“It is a long journey and you need to have some money to renovate your property with the bonus. It’s an expanded timeframe and there are still supply chain issues,” he said.

Despite this, though, Bolla believes it’s an “amazing” scheme. “We have a lot of energy dependence, so this is a good way to upgrade. Normally, the way we deal with our reliance on energy is to punish those who pollute more with higher energy bills, but those are always lower income people.

“Higher energy costs just punish the poor – this, instead, is a good way to solve the problem.”

See more in our articles about property in Italy on The Local.

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