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Where in France can you travel on public transport for free?

Montpellier has become the latest French town to offer free public transport - joining a growing list of local authorities offering partially or wholly free public transport in a bid to cut pollution and stimulate local economies.

Where in France can you travel on public transport for free?
Photo: Philippe Huguen/AFP

From Thursday, the southern French city of Montpellier is offering free public transport to all residents. The town joins a growing list of places that are offering free public transport to some or all.

Here’s a look at some of the schemes in place; 


On September 1st 2018, Dunkirk became the largest European urban agglomeration to have an entirely free bus network, serving around 200,000 inhabitants.

Whether you live in Dunkirk or are just visiting, you can travel across the city for free all week long with no need for a ticket or pass.

Mayor Patrice Vergriete first promised free public transport when he was elected in 2014, but “we didn’t want to introduce the measure straight away, because the bus network would not have been able to absorb the effects,” Didier Hubert of the Dunkirk transport authority told The Local.

Instead, the council focused first on improving the service, with extended routes, services every 10 minutes, and buses which trigger traffic lights to turn green. 

According to a report published in September 2019, public transport use increased by 88 percent between 2017 and 2019.

Jean-François Montagne, vice-president of the Dunkirk Urban Community in charge of ecological transition said: “If you tell your fellow citizens, ‘Take the bus, it’s good for the planet,’ it won’t work. However, if you say, ‘Take the bus, it’s free, and also it’s good for the planet,’ it works.”

Political leaders from across France, including Paris mayor Anne Hidalgo, have visited the coastal city to learn from its example.

While Montagne accepts that the Dunkirk model is not necessarily transferable – even before it became free, ticket sales only accounted for 10 percent of the transportation system’s funding, a much smaller proportion than in larger cities – he does believe others will follow.

“I really think that in 10 years, every city will have made public transport free.

“They don’t know it yet, but I’m convinced of it.”


25 miles up the coast from Dunkirk, another town has taken the plunge. Bus travel in Calais has been free since January 2020. This led to a 70 percent increase in passengers in the first months of the year, before the disruption caused by the pandemic, according to La Voix du Nord.

As in Dunkirk, the measure applies to all passengers; you do not need to show a ticket or proof of residency.

Mayor Natacha Bouchart first announced the measure in November 2018, “in response to the concerns of the ‘yellow vests’ in Calais,” as reported by local newspaper Nord Littoral.


Other cities have opted for a gradual approach. In September 2020, Montpellier in south east France first made its bus and tram network free for residents on weekends.

Starting on December 21st, 2023, public transportation will become entirely free for all Montpellier residents. However, in order to qualify, you will need to submit an application with your ID and proof of residence.

The choice to exclude visitors from the programme was a political one, according to Julie Frêche, vice-president for transport and mobility at the Montpellier Méditerranée Métropole.

“You need to be a resident to benefit from the measure, to show that, yes, we pay taxes, but these taxes go towards financing ambitious public policies,” she told The Local in June 2021.

In the immediate aftermath of the introduction for free weekend passes, the city saw an increase in weekend public transport usage by 7 percent, despite the fact that it took place during the pandemic.

Frêche also told The Local part of the goal was for public transport to help kickstart the post-lockdown economy.

“We did a study which says that 57 percent of those who made a journey at the weekend, did so because it was free,” she said.

READ ALSO Everything you need to know about taking the train in France


Located in western France, Niort introduced free public transport in 2017. 

In the past six years, bus ridership has tripled, according to Les Echos.


In April 2021, the northern French town of Nantes joined Montpellier in offering free travel on weekends.

In Nantes, however, this applies not just to locals, but to visitors as well. The price of an unlimited travel pass has also fallen by 20 percent.


In December 2020, the eastern city of Nancy also made public transport free on weekends.

No tickets are needed, meaning anybody can ride for free, residents and tourists alike. This applies to the bus and tram networks, as well as the ‘Citadines’, two lines of mini, electric shuttle buses which can be used for short journeys between different points in the centre of town.

The decision not to limit the offer to residents is an attempt to encourage people who live outside of the city to make the journey into town, according to Patrick Hatzig, vice-president in charge of transport at the Grand Nancy local authority.

“Our original intention was to make public transport attractive again, at a moment when Covid was leading to a fall in passenger numbers,” Hatzig told The Local.

“If it wasn’t for Covid, we would have done it anyway, but that only strengthened our determination. Covid is also an economic crisis, so helping families to come to the city centre and spend money, that has revitalised the economy.”

The council also has plans to develop 200 kilometres of new cycle lanes, and to create faster routes with buses which have priority at traffic lights. “We can only achieve all of that if we have fewer cars in town,” Hatzig said.


Residents of the greater Paris Île-de-France region who are under 18 are eligible for a full reimbursement of their monthly transport card. In addition, residents aged 14-18 can receive a reimbursement for the Vélib’ bicycle rental scheme.

The policy was introduced ahead of the 2020-21 school year.

Paris has talked about extending the free transport offer to more people, but as yet there are no concrete plans. Instead the city is working on expanding its cycle lane network and making more areas pedestrian friendly – according the deputy mayor David Belliard, 65 percent of the journeys that take place within Paris are done on foot.

READ ALSO Paris reveals plan to ‘pedestrianise’ the city


In January 2021, France’s third largest city – which at the time had a Green Party mayor – made public transport free for certain residents. The scheme was designed to benefit 130,000 people in the greater Lyon area who are on low incomes or in vulnerable situations.

“The development of public transport is the most efficient method of reducing geographical and social inequalities,” Bruno Bernard, the then-president of the Grand Lyon urban area, said at the time.

The decision to target the least well-off sections of the population reflects a debate which is ongoing in a number of cities, including Nancy: whether free public transport should be universal, or whether resources are best directed towards those who would benefit the most.


In September 2021, under-18s living in the Strasbourg urban area became eligible for free travel on the CTS bus and tram network. 

Since making it free for young people, the number of people subscribed to the transport network has doubled, Alain Jund, who heads mobility for the city, told Actu France in August 2023.


In January 2022, Lille began offering free public transport for all residents under the age of 18. The measure was meant to reduce a reliance on cars.

One thing seems certain: we are going to see more French cities implement similar policies in the years to come. 

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For members


Reader question: Will I need to do a French ‘integration’ class to renew my carte de séjour?

France's new immigration law contains extra provisions for 'integration' - including promising to adhere to French values and attending classes on French history and culture. Here's what they mean for foreigners in France.

Reader question: Will I need to do a French 'integration' class to renew my carte de séjour?

Question: I read that France will now be requiring foreigners to sign a contract promising to respect French values, and to take civics classes – does that mean I will have to do that when I next renew my carte de séjour?

The short answer to this is – maybe, it depends on the type of card you have and what change you’re hoping to make.

Here’s the longer answer;

France’s new immigration law, passed back in January, brought in three main changes for foreigners in France – language tests, a contract promising to ‘respect the values of the French republic’ and expanded classes in civics (French culture, history and values).

Language tests

Undoubtedly the biggest change for most people is the language tests – we have covered this topic extensively HERE.


Then there is the Contrat d’engagement au respect des principes de la République française – which is a promise to respect the ‘values of the French republic’ such as personal freedom, freedom of expression and equality between men and women.

In practical terms, this is just a form that you will need to sign as part of the application process for a visa or residency card – you can find full details on exactly what you’re agreeing to respect HERE.

This applies to all types of visa and residency card, including renewals. It is not yet in force, but is expected to come into effect later this year.


Then there are is the contrat d’intégration républicaine (CIR), which has a confusingly similar name. This involves extra courses in civics and language that certain groups can be required to attend.

The CIR is a lot more than just signing a form, you also agree to take several hours of classes – but the key thing is that many groups are exempt from this requirement.

The immigration law doesn’t actually change who is required to sign the CIR and do the classes, it just expands the scope of the classes themselves and adds a test at the end.

These don’t apply to people applying for visa, it’s only when you get your residency permit – carte de séjour/titre de séjour – that you may be required to meet with OFII (the French office of immigration and integration) and take the classes.

Exemptions – Let’s start with exemptions – if you are applying for or renewing any of the following carte de séjour types you do not need to do the classes; 

  • Visitors (carte de séjour temporaire “visiteur”)
  • Students (carte de séjour temporaire portant la mention “étudiant”)
  • Trainees/interns (carte de séjour temporaire portant la mention “stagiaire”)
  • Temporary workers (carte de séjour temporaire portant la mention “travailleur temporaire”)
  • People who were born in France and have resided here for at least eight years (you fall under the jeune étranger né en France status of the carte de séjour temporaire portant la mention “vie privée et familiale”)
  • People with serious illness (you fall under the ‘étranger malade‘ category of the carte de séjour temporaire portant la mention “vie privée et familiale”)
  • Seconded employees and their families (carte de séjour pluriannuelle portant la mention “salarié détaché”)
  • Seasonal workers (carte de séjour pluriannuelle portant la mention “travailleur saisonnier”)
  • Talent passport holders and their families (carte de séjour pluriannuelle portant la mention “passeport talent”)
  • People who completed at least three years of French secondary school or one year of higher education in France
    EU/EEA/ Swiss nationals
  • Holders of the post-Brexit Article 50 TUE carte de séjour
  • People who qualify for the carte de résident due to service in the French foreign legion or military

So who does have to do the classes? – The new law does not change who has to sign the CIR (and by extension, agree to take the classes), certain groups have always been required to do this, including;

  • Workers on a salarié carte de séjour
  • Self-employed people on a entrepreneur/profession libérale status
  • Certain groups on the ‘vie privée et familiale‘ statuses, including parents of French minors and foreign spouses and partners (PACs) of French nationals.
  • Applicants for the carte de résident de longue durée-UE card, which is given to people after five years of residency in France
  • Refugees

You only have to sign the CIR and take the assigned courses once, and the certificate then applies to all future card applications and renewals. 

How to access the classes

In most cases, people do the classes shortly after arriving in France when they request their first carte de séjour (usually after three months of residence, although it can be longer for different card types).

It is part of the general summons by the OFII which can also include language classes and a medical test.

OFII: Your questions answered on France’s immigration office

However if you are swapping from a card type that is exempt onto a card type that is not exempt you may also have to do them – for example if you apply for the carte de résident de longue durée-UE after five years of residence and were previously on a ‘visiteur’ card.

In this case you won’t receive a summons from OFII, you will need to contact them and request the relevant form. You will be called to an interview and from this interview they will decide whether you need to do the classes or not – it depends on your level of French and whether you can demonstrate that you are integrated into French society and understand French values.

In the case of the carte de résident de longue durée-UE, the opinion of your local mayor or commune can be taken into account – so if you know your mayor you could ask them to write an attestation stating that you are well integrated into local life, which may help.

So that’s the long answer – we did warn you.