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ANALYSIS: Why is France so often misrepresented abroad?

After a series of stories in foreign media that misunderstand or misrepresent events in France, Ingri Bergo looks at why is France having such a hard time making itself understood abroad.

ANALYSIS: Why is France so often misrepresented abroad?
Illustration photo: Arif ALI / AFP / various sources

When foreign media last week reported that France was about to ban the hijab, some forgot to clarify that the bill under scrutiny contained no mention of the Muslim headwear. The proposal was added by senators in amendments that were highly unlikely to become law.

Nevertheless, the incident sparked outrage abroad. Defendants of Muslim women’s rights in several countries denounced the senators’ move towards restricting their religious freedom under the hashtags #handsoffmyhijab and #pastoucheàmonhijab in French.

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It followed hard on the heels of reports that France was planning to introduce a ‘register of Muslim school children’ (it isn’t) – and that’s just from one piece of legislation, the loi relatif à la prévention d’actes de terrorisme et au renseignement (law on the prevention of terrorist acts and intelligence)

READ ALSO What’s in France’s new anti-terrorism law?

Emmanuel Macron is far from the first French president to have called out foreign media for misrepresenting France abroad.

So why is France, a country well known internationally through literature, movies and TV, struggling to make itself understood?

Reason 1: The French model is difficult to understand

“French public life today rests on historical foundations that can make it difficult for outsiders to understand,” Jim Shields, a professor of French Politics at the University of Warwick in the United Kingdom, told The Local.

The French model, which differs from countries like the UK and the United States, has long been the source of both confusion and conflict, especially on two particularly incendiary matters: race relations and religion.

The French state is founded on a principle of universal equality that requires the Republic to be colour-blind. In practice, that means no public collection of ethnic or religious data, including in the Census. It is the opposite of the multicultural model of countries such as the US, which strives to recognise minority groups. 

To foreigners, the French frowning upon so-called communautarisme – a pejorative term that can be loosely translated as ‘identity politics’ – can seem, in Shield’s words, “a stark paradox.”

“France is a multi-ethnic society but, with its rigid insistence on égalité, the French state maintains a public policy model that simply ignores ethnic diversity.”

ANALYSIS: Is France really ‘colour-blind’ or just blind to racism?

The second element that often puzzles foreigners is the French guarantor for religious freedom: Laïcité.

Laïcité can be translated as “secularism”, though scholars note that the English term lacks the nuances laïcité implies. Laïcité was enshrined by law in 1905, through a bedrock piece of legislation that formally separated Church and State. 

It remains a cornerstone, but a controversial one, of French identity today, which takes centre stage during visceral debates such as the recurrent topic of the Muslim headscarf.

EXPLAINED: What does laïcité (secularism) really mean in France?

Laïcité is poorly understood, but also poorly explained,” Patrick Weil, a historian who teaches at Panthéon-Sorbonne University in Paris and at Yale in the US, told The Local.

Weil’s latest book, De la laïcité en France (Laïcité in France), which came out this month, explores how such a core concept to French identity has been emptied of meaning to the people who live it – including when French politicians deliberately misunderstand it to score political points.

“How can you expect Americans to understand it when French people don’t?” he said. “When a government cannot properly explain it?”

Reason 2: Stereotypes and French-bashing

But some foreigners also enjoy having a go at the French. 

In a 2015 documentary titled “French bashing”, filmmaker Jean-Baptiste Péretié defined the concept as “a combat sport invented by Anglo Saxons to criticise the lazy, striking, effeminate, cowardly, unfaithful, seducing, impolite, unhygienic, arrogant, cheese-munching French”.

France has long been romanticised and ridiculed, sometimes at the same time. Some of the clichés reflect common misunderstandings about France. The blockbuster Netflix series Emily in Paris portrayed a groomed, spotless Paris (it’s not) and grumpy, snobbish, lazy Parisians (they’re not. Or at least not all of them).

READ ALSO: ‘Vile snobs’: Why are the French so annoyed about Emily in Paris?

But other misrepresentations are more serious. Pundits and media in both the UK and the US have a history of playing into stereotypes about the French.

“British and American media sometimes appear to deliberately want to smear France,” Vibeke Knoop-Rachline, a Norwegian author in Paris whose last book “Terror in the heart of Europe” (in Norwegian) traced the origins of the 2015 Paris terror attacks, told The Local.

“I think that’s different to misunderstandings you sometimes see in for example Norway,” she said.

Somali-Norwegian model Rawdah Mohamed sparked the protests against the senators’ proposed hijab-ban when she criticised the proposal in an Instagram post.

Back in 2005, Knoop-Rachline covered the riots that rocked Parisian suburbs. The violence, sparked by the death of two young boys as they fled the police, got widespread international attention. 

A CNN broadcast showed the Eiffel Tower burning, despite the fact that the events were happening outside the capital, far away from the tourist emblem. 

The president at the time, Jacques Chirac, deplored that foreign media reported the riots in a sensationalist manner, after broadcasters kept breaking news using terms such as “Paris is Burning”, “civil war” and “Muslim riots”.

READ ALSO: French bashing – Why the hatred towards France?

By then Chirac was familiar with the foreign coverage of France. When he refused to join the invasion of Iraq in 2003, he starred on the front of British newspaper The Sun as a worm.

While US media coverage often taps into the sensational (remember Fox News reporting about Paris’ “no-go zones”), British tabloids have leaned more towards blaming France for things that go wrong.

December 2020 was a bleak time for the UK as spiralling Covid rates forced the cancellation of a planned Christmas break in the lockdown. The response of several UK newspapers was to lash out at the French.

President Emmanuel Macron (suffering at the time from Covid) was castigated after he temporarily closed France’s borders in response to the then-new UK variant. Many other European leaders did exactly the same thing, but were left off the front pages.

In 2015 the Daily Mail splashed “Send in the army” to northern France, in response to migrant crossings. In a five-page article series, one titled “Why the French ARE to blame”, the tabloid found comfort in what an Economist article published earlier this year described as “Canning’s law: when in doubt, blame the French.”

George Canning was a British foreign minister who in 1825 told a ministerial colleague that the French “have but two rules of action: to thwart us whenever they know our object; and when they know it not, to imagine one, and to set about thwarting that.”

The centuries-old narrative has been particularly prominent in many UK headlines describing the Brexit talks.

3. Some want to undermine France

But the British are far from the only ones that have used France as a scapegoat.

“When you hear leaders like (Turkish President Recep Tayyip) Erdogan striking back against France, it is completely opportunistic,” French scholar Benjamin Haddad, Director of the Europe Centre of the Atlantic Council in Washington, told The Local. 

Haddad was referring to the reaction in Turkey following the murder of history teacher Samuel Paty in October 2020 by an radicalised Islamist.

In a Foreign Policy article Haddad defended the French government’s crackdown against radicalism that followed the killing of Paty, which was widely criticised abroad and spurred fury in several parts of the Muslim world. Protesters in Pakistan burned the French flag

The situation further escalated with a false rumour claiming that France planned to equip its Muslim children with ID numbers. Pakistan’s human rights minister, in a tweet that was later deleted, compared the plan to the Nazis forcing Jews to wear yellow stars. 

READ ALSO: Why does France want to appoint an ‘envoy’ to explain itself to Muslim countries?

“Some are using what is going on in France to attack the French state,” Rim-Sarah Alouane, a legal scholar of laïcité and civil liberties in France, told The Local. “This is extremely dangerous and problematic.” 

The situation in Pakistan has become so serious that the French embassy recently recommended all its citizens leave the country.

But sometimes France doesn’t want to be understood

However some of the criticism of France that comes from abroad is neither exaggerations nor untruths. 

“You do have people who understand the French model quite well,” Alouane said. “But France doesn’t like to have its image tarnished abroad.” 

When foreigners call France out on preaching equality but practising inequality, or that politicians – like the senators adding amendments to the separatism bill – weaponise laïcité to target Muslims, ‘you don’t understand us’, can be an efficient way to shrug off the criticism.

So, in a sense, the misrepresentation sometimes works both ways.

And some argue that France should take at least some of the French-bashing as a compliment.

“I’ll let you in on a secret,” wrote British journalist Hanna Meltzer in an article published on the French website Télé

“We make fun of you because we think that you’e cool.”

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Asterix: Five things to know about France’s favourite character

Asterix is hitting the box offices again, so to celebrate here's a look at France's most treasured hero.

Asterix: Five things to know about France's favourite character

If you have walked past a bus stop anywhere in France in recent weeks, then you have likely run into film posters advertising Asterix and Obelix: The Middle Kingdom.

Starring high-profile French actors Marion Cotillard and Vincent Cassel, France’s film industry is hoping that this film, capitalising on France’s nostalgic relationship with the comic series “Asterix” will bring box office success.

The Asterix comic book series was first published in 1959, and tells the story of a small Gallic village on the coast of France that is attempting to defend itself from invaders, namely the Romans. Asterix, the hero of the series, manages to always save the day, helping his fellow Gauls keep the conquerors at bay.

As the beloved Gaulish hero makes his way back onto the big screen, here are five things you should know about France’s cherished series:

Asterix is seen as the ‘every day’ Frenchman

“Asterix brings together all of the identity-based clichés that form the basis of French culture”, Nicolas Rouvière, researcher at the University of Grenoble-Alps and expert in French comics, told AFP in an interview in 2015.

READ MORE: Bande dessinée: Why do the French love comic books so much?

The expert wrote in his 2014 book “Obelix Complex” that “the French like to look at themselves in this mirror [of the Asterix series], which reflects their qualities and shortcomings in a caricatured and complacent way”.

Oftentimes, the French will invoke Asterix – the man who protected France from the Roman invaders – when expressing their resistance toward something, whether that is imported, American fast food or an unpopular government reform.

The front page of French leftwing newspaper Libération shows President Emmanuel Macron as a Roman while Asterix and his team are the French people protesting against pension reform.

The figure of ‘a Gaul’ is a popular mascot for French sports teams, and you’ll even see people dressed up as Asterix on demos. 

A man dressed as Asterix the Gaul with a placard reading “Gaul, Borne breaks our balls” during a protest over the government’s proposed pension reform, in Paris on January 31, 2023. (Photo by JULIEN DE ROSA / AFP)

Asterix is the second best-selling comic series

The series has had great success in France since it was first launched in 1959, originally as Astérix le Gaulois. It has also been popular across much of Europe, as the series often traffics in tongue-in-cheek stereotypes of other European nations – for example, caricaturing the English as fans of lukewarm beer and tasteless foods.

Over the years, Asterix has been translated into more than 100 languages, with at least 375 million copies sold worldwide.

It remains the second best-selling comic series in the world, after the popular manga “One Piece”.

There is an Asterix theme park 

The French love Asterix so much that they created a theme park, located just 22 miles north of Paris, in the comic series’ honour in 1989.

The park receives up to two million visitors a year, making it the second most visited theme park in France, after Disneyland Paris. With over 40 attractions and six themed sections, inspired by the comic books, the park brings both young and old visitors each year. 

READ MORE: Six French ‘bandes dessinées’ to start with

The first French satellite was named after Asterix

As Asterix comes from the Greek word for ‘little star’, the French though it would be apt to name their first satellite, launched in 1965 after the Gaulish warrior.

As of 2023, the satellite was still orbiting the earth and will likely continue to do so for centuries to come.

Asterix’ co-authors were from immigrant backgrounds

Here’s become the ‘ultimate Frenchman’, but both creators of the Asterix series were second-generation French nationals, born in France in the 1920s to immigrant parents.

René Goscinny created the Asterix comic series alongside illustrator Albert Uderzo. Goscinny’s parents were Jewish immigrants from Poland. Born in Paris, René’s family moved to Argentina when he was young and he was raised there for the majority of his childhood. As for Albert Uderzo, his parents were Italian immigrants who settled in the Paris region.

Goscinny unexpectedly died at the age of 51, while writing Asterix in Belgium. From then on, Uderzo took over both writing and illustrating the series on his own, marking Goscinny’s death in the comic by illustrating dark skies for the remainder of the book.

In 1985, Uderzo received one of the highest distinctions in France – the Legion of Honour. Uderzo retired in 2011, but briefly came out of retirement in 2015 to commemorate the Charlie Hebdo cartoonists who were murdered in a terror attack by drawing two Asterix pictures honouring their memories.