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Seven fascinating ways written and spoken German differ

Even with High German, the differences between writing and speaking are stark.

Seven fascinating ways written and spoken German differ
The Swiss and German flags fly near German parliament. Image: WOLFGANG KUMM / DPA / AFP

You’ve spent hours learning the difference between Genitiv and Dativ, poring over complicated article tables and mastering complicated word order rules… only to step off the plane in Germany and realise you can barely understand a thing. 

Fear not – this is a common experience for many language-learners. The German you’ll read in your textbooks is not the same as the German you’ll hear on the street, so here’s a list of seven important differences to help you hit the ground running. 

And don’t get us started on Swiss German – that’s a whole other kettle of hot cheese.

1. Word order

German is notorious for its difficult word order, with subordinating conjunctions such as da and weil sending the verb to the end of a clause and tying non-native speakers in knots.

Whilst the importance of correct word order will be drilled into you in language classes, you’ll often find native German speakers themselves shirking the rules.

READ ALSO: 12 signs you’ve mastered the German language

Sentences with multiple clauses can prove difficult even for native speakers, who will often opt to keep the verb where it is rather than sending it to the end.

Ich habe gestern den ganzen Tag im Bett verbracht, weil ich war so müde (correct formulation: weil ich so müde war). 

I spent the whole day in bed yesterday because I was so tired.

Germans will also often play with word order to emphasise certain aspects of the sentence, even if it is not technically grammatically correct. 

Ich putze das Haus gerade (correct formulation: ich putze gerade das Haus)

I am cleaning the house at the moment.

2. Past tense

When Germans tell stories or speak about what they got up to last weekend, you’re much more likely to hear the present perfect rather than the preterite. 

With the exception of some verbs, such as haben or sein, many native speakers would find it strange to speak with the preterite in everyday life.  

If you’re in doubt during a conversation, opting for ich bin gefahren (I went) rather than ich fuhr will always be a safe bet. 

READ ALSO: Eight of the most common (and funniest) mistakes German learners make

3. Mixed up cases

The case system in German can take years to master, and learning the correct uses of the dative and genitive can be a particular sore point for many non-native speakers.

However you’ll see many native German speakers making the same mistakes on a daily basis. 

The genitive case is being used less and less in spoken language, with many simply replacing it with the dative equivalent. 

Take the preposition wegen, for example: technically this word should be followed by the genitive case, but you’ll often hear wegen dem Wetter (due to/as a result of the weather) instead of wegen des Wetters in everyday conversation.

A similar phenomenon occurs with the possessive genitive:

When talking about ‘Steven’s car’, for example, Stevens Auto (correct German formulation) becomes dem Steven sein Auto (replaced with dative). 

For many native German speakers, using the genitive when speaking now feels unnatural and stilted – in fact, this ‘mistake’ has become so widespread that many Germans now mix their cases up when writing.

4. Abbreviations

Much like in English, German speakers are also partial to shortening words where possible. So much so that it’s not uncommon to hear multiple abbreviations within the same sentence. 

Popular Abkürzungen (abbreviations) include the shortening of articles, for example eine to ‘ne, or the merging of words such as fürs for für das.

Ich brauche einen Computer fürs Studium.

I need a computer for my studies. 

Es war ‘ne tolle Erfahrung! 

It was a great experience!

READ ALSO: Ten German abbreviations that will have you texting like a true native

5. Swallowed sounds

Similarly, German speakers will often drop the letter at the end of a verb, losing the ‘e’ sound to make a sentence flow more smoothly. 

This doesn’t work for all verbs, but it is most commonly heard with verbs such as ich habe (I have) which becomes ich hab’ or ich glaube (I believe) which becomes ich glaub’.

Verbs in the plural form can also be shortened, with wir gehen (we go) becoming wir geh’n and sie sehen (they see) becoming sie seh’n.

6. Modal particles 

Spoken German is also littered with small words that are incredibly difficult to translate but very important to help understand the context of a sentence.

What is more, the intonation used when pronouncing these filler words is key to interpreting the tone of the speaker, meaning they don’t work as well when written on the page. 

READ ALSO: Das ist ja mal wictig: The complete guide to German particles

One of the most common of these is halt – it comes from the verb halten (to stop), but is often used to add ‘colour’ to sentences, to express a tone of resignation or to buy time when someone is unsure of what to say, just as with ‘like’ or ‘just’ in English.

Other untranslatable modal particles include doch, eben and mal – whilst they can originally be confusing, language learners soon get a feel for when they should be used. 

Du hast mir nicht geschrieben! 

You didn’t send me a message!


Yes I did! 

Das Ding ist halt, dass immer noch so viele Fehler beim Sprechen mache.

The thing is that I still make so many mistakes when I speak.

Sollen wir bald mal was zusammen machen?

Should we hang out together soon?

7. Slang 

Last but not least are the widely used slang words that pepper everyday speech, especially amongst young people. 

Many slang terms vary from region to region, but they’re much more common in spoken language than in written language as they suggest a degree of informality.  

Words such as krass and geil can be used to show you’re impressed by something, whilst the question Na? has become a common colloquial greeting.


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For members


Putsch: How one Swiss German word became known around the world

Swiss German is notoriously difficult for many people to understand, even those who speak 'Hochdeutsch'. But there is a famous term that has made it into the global vocabulary.

Putsch: How one Swiss German word became known around the world

Swiss Germans are incredibly proud of their wide variety of dialects, known as Schwyzerdütsch.

But it’s fair to say that these dialects are not well known outside of Switzerland. In fact, even some High German speakers struggle with understanding Swiss German. 

But according to a report in Swiss newspaper Blick, there is a famous word used in other languages that actually originated from Swiss German. 

And no, it isn’t Müesli, which is probably the most famous Swiss German export.

READ ALSO: Swiss German vs Hochdeutsch: What are the key differences? 

The word is ‘putsch’, which many people around the world use in a political context to mean a coup, or an attempt to overthrow a government.

According to the report, ‘putsch’ originated from the Zurich dialect of the 19th century.


At that time in Zurich, putsch meant knock, thrust, clash, bang or push.

This type of clash happened in Zurich’s Paradeplatz on September 6th 1839. It involved thousands of members of the rural conservative population who stormed against the liberal rule of the city of Zurich.

The insurgents saw the position of the church threatened, feared for their traditions and felt abandoned by the government and townspeople.

The putsch, which was led by Pastor Bernhard Hirzel, cost the lives of 14 insurgents and a member of the government council. The Zurich government abdicated, and the rebels celebrated this as a success. In the long run, however, the uprising had no effect.

A painting shows fighting during the Züriputsch 1839.

A painting shows fighting during the Züriputsch in 1839. Photo: Wikimedia Commons/ Zentralbibliothek Zürich

The events received a lot of attention abroad. German newspapers reported on the ‘Züriputsch’. In France and Britain, reports spoke of “le putsch” or “the putsch” in Switzerland.

In the decades after 1839, the term gained popularity. According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, it became even more well known in English around the Kapp Putsch of 1920, when Wolfgang Kapp and his right-wing supporters attempted to overthrow the German Weimar government.

Putsch attempts were common in Weimar Germany, so the word appeared often in the stories of British journalists who described the events

Adolf Hitler’s attempt to gain power with the National Socialists in the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich on November 9th 1923 went down in history as the “Hitler Putsch” or “Beer Hall Putsch”. These events helped the Swiss German word achieve a global breakthrough.

READ ALSO: Why November 9th is a fateful day in German history

In 1958 and 1961, when sections of the French military campaigned for Algeria to remain part of France, they revolted against the government in Paris. The resistance failed both times and the North African country became independent in 1962. The events found their way into the French history books as the “putsch d’Alger” and the “putsch des généraux”.

In recent history, former US President Donald Trump’s supporters tried to enact a putsch in Washington DC in January 2021. In neighbouring Germany, a group of far-right extremists were arrested in a suspected plot to overthrow the government in December 2022. And in June this year, the leader of the Russian Wagner Group, Yevgeny Prigozhin, failed in a revolt against the Russian government.

So if this word is part of your vocabulary then congratulations – you already speak (a little) Schwyzerdütsch.